Write 2 pages with APA style on Hematological Pathologies. Microcytic anemia- This is a hematological pathology associated with a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. The disease is chara

Write 2 pages with APA style on Hematological Pathologies. Microcytic anemia- This is a hematological pathology associated with a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. The disease is characterized by a decrease in the size of red blood cells resulting in a Mean Cell Volume less than 80femtoliters. The cells are also hypochromic and paler than in the physiological state.

Hemolytic anemia- This is a pathological condition associated with the decrease in the number of red blood cells due to the disruption of erythropoiesis and erythrocyte destruction. This is mainly prominent in the bone marrow.

Pernicious anemia- This is a pathological condition associated with a decrease in the number of erythrocytes due to the insufficiency of vitamin B12, which in turn results in the reduced production of erythrocytes.

Erythropoiesis- This refers to the procedures involved in the formation of erythrocytes.

Reticulocytes- These are immature erythrocytes which comprise approximately 1% of RBCs in the blood.

Which illnesses are associated with blood loss- Anemia can occur due to blood loss in cases such as hemorrhoids, ulcers, cancer or gastritis.

How do malabsorptive disorders contribute to the development of anemias- Malabsorption disorders are also involved in the pathogenesis of anemia due to decrease or faulty production of red blood cells. An example is Iron deficiency anemia, whereby disruption of absorption in the duodenum may lead to a decrease in hemoglobin production as this mineral is necessary for this procedure. This, in turn, will result in decreased Hb levels and anemia. Absorptive disorders may also disrupt the uptake of folate and vitamin B12 which are both necessary for erythropoiesis.

What is “anemia of chronic disease”- Anemia of chronic disease refers to any long term disease leading to inflammatory, malignant or infectious processes that reduce both erythropoietin and Iron levels. In addition, these diseases reduce the lifespan of erythrocytes. Examples of such pathologies include severe trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus and heart disease.

What are some of the lab tests used to evaluate anemia of chronic disease- Lab tests used to evaluate anemia of chronic disease include Iron panel, serum folic acid and vitamin B12, serum AST and ALT, levels of TSH, electrophoretic studies of urine and serum and serum levels of metals such as arsenic and lead.

How can medications cause anemia?- The usage of NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and aspirin may lead to gastritis and ulcers which in turn result in blood causing anemia.

Distinguish between the following types of anemia-including symptoms-

1. Iron deficiency anemia-This is anemia due to faulty or decreased erythropiesis. The body has insufficient Iron, hence cannot synthesize hemoglobin. This anemia is often normocytic or microcytic and is also hypochromic. Symptoms include pallor, fatigue, loss appetite, irritability.

2. B-12 deficiency- This leads to megaloblastic anemia. And is often associated with loss of gastric cells, unlike Iron deficiency which involves disorders of the duodenum. This type of anemia is macrocytic. The main distinguishing sign of this disease is Hunter’s glottitis. Other symptoms include malaise, depression, brittle nails, fatigue and weight loss.

3. Folate deficiency-This disease is a result of malabsorption of folate which can be due to kidney pathologies or alcoholism. This disease is also macrocytic and when suspected it is also necessary to check for levels of vitamin B12. Symptoms of the disease include weight loss, amnesia, presyncope and malaise.

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