Need an research paper on molecular biology techniques. Needs to be 12 pages. Please no plagiarism.

Need an research paper on molecular biology techniques. Needs to be 12 pages. Please no plagiarism. c) T3 and T7: are T3 and T7 RNA polymerase promoters for in vitro production of RNA. These two promoters are present on the opposite strands in the cloning sites. Hence the inserted DNA can be synthesized from either strand, increasing the productivity of the protein.

e) MCS: multiple cloning site: this stretch of the vector DNA contains many restriction sites introduced artificially. These restriction sites can be cleaved by different restriction enzymes and the gene of interest can be inserted between the stick ends generated.

Forensic evidence prepared by multi-locus DNA profiles of blood traces from a crime scene and blood samples of seven suspects is shown below (left). This evidence is presented as an autoradiograph of Southern-blotted restriction-digested DNA, which had been probed with a multi-locus repeated DNA sequence. A similar case analyzed by PCR amplification of a single-locus DNA (below right), shows evidence from several individuals and allelic ladders.

One of the problems with the multi-locus test method is that if the sample is degraded, the fragments due to degradation may add new false lines to the fingerprints, which may not be due to restriction sites. These may give a false negative report.

Two bands come from the alleles (2n number of chromosomes in somatic cells). Due to recombination or replication errors, alleles with different numbers of repeat arise and always show two separate bands.

Step 1. This step occurs around 94-98 deg cel. DNA melting occurs at this temperature. High temperature breaks the H-bonding between complementary base pairs and converts a double-stranded DNA into single-stranded DNA.

Step2. This step occurs at 50-65 deg cel. It is called annealing. It allows primers to anneal or complementary base-pair with the single-stranded DNA. This double-stranded region is&nbsp.necessary for the DNA polymerase to bind and begin DNA synthesis.

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