Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Define the Italian Renaissance. When did it begin and when did it end What were the intellectual, cultural, economic, and polit. This was embraced by majority of the people from the middle ages. Factors that made the Italian renaissance possible There were political, intellectual, economic and cultural that facilitated the Italian renaissance leading to great achievements. These are discussed below: Political Factor There was political division between the Northern and the upper Central Italy. They were divided into warring states. There were also two opposing parties namely Guelfs and Ghibellines which operated within each state. Stronger states gathered enough forces and captured smaller states. During the renaissance period, Italy was governed through a series of oligarchies. These were ruled by specific families like the Borgia and the Medici families which were wealthy. These families supported the renaissance. For example, the Medici family was able to fund the thinkers of that time3. During the late 15th century, the ruling class and the aristocracy fully adopted the Renaissance ideal. This made it easy for its philosophy and art to spread faster. Under the rule of Cosimo de’ Medici, the son of Giovanni de’ Medici, the town of Florence became stable and prosperous. This motivated people to support the idea of development instead of fixing their minds to the influence of the Catholic Church. Political philosophers like Niccolo Machiavelli influenced renaissance through their works. Niccolo wrote articles like Florentine Histories and The Prince and Discourses on Livy. The Prince and Discourses on Livy had much more influence than any other piece of writing at the time. It led to a change in political perspective of many people. Niccolo wanted people to view politics from the point of reality and absolutism. The families which ruled used the renaissance as their power. The renaissance got to its peak in the 16th century. There were foreign invasions in Italy which led to the turmoil of Italian wars. It led to great devastation of northern Italy and loss of independence of many states. In May, 1527, Spanish and German troops invaded Italy. It was as a result of this invasion that Rome encountered major setbacks for two decades. This brought to an end the role of the Papacy as a driver of Renaissance4. There were shifts in the control of the Papacy. Renaissance philosophy and art dominated the Vatican when wealthy families like the Borgias and Medici began controlling the Papacy. Intellectual The stage for renaissance was set by the Italian literature revolution in the 13th century. Before renaissance, Latin, French and Provencal were used as the literary languages in Italy instead of the Italian language. Come the 13th century, Italian authors began producing their works using their native language. Mid 13th century poets like Giuttone d’Arezzo and Giodo Guinizelli pioneered poetry works like Dolce Stil Novo which means Sweet New Style. This poetry work stressed on platonic rather than courtly love. Aldus Manutius initiated book printing. This led to an increase in books published in the Italian language. Italian writers were able to produce many new books about sports, science, farming and politics. At the same time, there were many texts written in Greek and Latin. These had great contributions to the Italian renaissance. A lot of study and translation was conducted to the Greek and Latin texts. Science and philosophy was also developing. This influenced the poetry and literature of the renaissance.
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